Sindh has a geographical area of 140,900 square kilometers. The Province lies between 23 and 29 degree north latitude (near tropic of cancer) and 67 and 71 degrees east longitude. The Province is surrounded by land in all directions expect there is Arabian sea in the south west. It is bordered with Rann of Kachh in south, Rajastan in east, Punjab province in north-east and Baluchistan in north and west. In the extreme west are the barren Kirthar Mountains; to the east is the great Indian desert, partly known as Thar desert.
The lower Indus plain has been formed by the meandering and shifting courses of Indus river. In the basin of Indus the earliest civilization came into existence (Pithawala, 1938). The mighty river Indus is flowing from the worlds highest mountains into the Arabian Sea. The colossal flow of Indus water has brought for Sindh rich silt and sandy loam, from northern areas which enhance the fertility of the soil.
Remains excavated at Moen-jo-Daro in Larkana district dateback to Pre-Aryan civilization of 3000 BC. Main crops at the time as revealed through excavation were barley, Wheat, Pea and Sesamum. It is inferred from the relics of cloth that cotton was also grown there. Therefore, it is believed that the advancement of agriculture has been existing in this region since pre-historic times. 

The climate of Sindh is arid and hot. Accordingly to classification made by UNESCO the region has been divided into three zones as under:
South of Thatta
From Thatta through Hyderabad to Nawabshah
Form Nawabshah to Jacobabad
Accordingly to the climatic and soil condition of the province, different areas are suitable for different crops e.g, lower part of the province is best for sugarcane, coconut, banana and papaya plantation. The plains of middle Sindh are suitable for dry crops. In the Upper Sindh and right bank areas of the Indus river crop is grown richly. The Eastern portion of the province and kacho areas are suitable for rain fed crops, like millets and guar.

The suitability of areas for main crops in detail is in accordance with the soil and climatic condition of the province as under: - 

Upper Sindh
Larkana, Shikarpur and Jacobabad are suitable for growing rice as main crop, matter, rape and mustard and safflower / sunflower as dobari crops.

Sukkur & Khairpur districts are best suited for dry crops viz: cotton, wheat, rape and mustard and sunflower.

Middle Sindh
Nawabshah, Nausherferoz and Dadu districts are dry crop tracts. There cotton, rape and mustard and sunflower are grown successfully.
Lower Sindh
Upper part of Hyderabad (Hala, Hyderabad & Tando Allayar Sub Division), Sanghar & Mirpurkhas district are suitable for cotton, wheat, sunflower, soybean, rape and mustard and groundnut (in Sanghar only).

Tando Mohammad Khan sub division of Hyderabad district, Badin and Thatta districts are suitable for sugarcane and rice crops. In addition to the said crops; sunflower, and rape and mustard are also grown as dobari. Mash and masoor pulses are also suitably grown in Thatta & Badin districts.

Desert and Kacho Area
The rain fed areas of Thar district and kacho tracts of Hyderabad, Dadu Larkana districts are suitable for millet and sorghum crops, Guar, Seasamum and caster crops also flourish very well in desert areas of Thar after rain.



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